The Great Pacific War was a 1925 novel written by Hector Charles Bywater which discussed a hypothetical future war between the Empire of Japan and the United States of America between 1931 and 1933.
Several naval battles where fought during the war, here i will post the naval battles from the first one (Battle of Lubang) to the monster and last showdown (Battle of Yap).
The Battle of Lubang (March 6th 1931)
Location of the battle
Northwest of Lubang Island.
Date of the battle
March 6th 1931.
A outnumbered and outgunned American squadron consisting of a few obsolete cruisers, destroyers and submarines who are defending the Philippines is pitted against a vastly superior Japanese force.
Order of battle
Imperial Japanese Navy: South Sea Squadron
Kongō-class battlecruisers: Kongo, Hiei and Kirishima
Hosho-class light aircraft carrier: Hosho
Kuma-class light cruisers: Kuma, Tama, Kitakami and Oi.
Tenryū-class light cruisers: Tatsuta and Tenryu.
United States Navy: Asiatic Fleet
Tennessee-class armored cruiser: USS Missoula.
Denver-class protected cruisers: USS Denver and USS Galveston.
Pennsylvania-class armored cruiser: USS Frederick.
Denver-class protected cruiser: USS Cleveland.
Wright-class seaplane carrier: USS Wright.
Three mine layers.
Outcome of the battle
Losses suffered during the battle
The United States Navy: Asiatic Fleet went into battle with five cruisers but the Denver-class protected cruiser USS Cleveland was due engine trouble forced to retreat before the battle. In the battle the United States Navy: Asiatic Fleet was obliterated losing four light cruisers, one seaplane carrier, six destroyers and three mine layers with only four destroyers managing to return to Manila. The Imperial Japanese Navy: South Sea Squadron only loses where the Tenryū-class light cruiser Tatsuta and two destroyers allowing the Japanese transports to leave their bases in Formosa and land their troops. Despite the best efforts of American submarines and army bombers, who despite causing heavy casualties among the first wave are not able to prevent the Japanese from landing enough forces who manage to defeat the American garrison.
United States Navy: Asiatic Fleet: 2,500 sailors and officers killed.
Imperial Japanese Navy: South Sea Squadron: 600 sailors and officers killed.
vrijdag 30 oktober 2015
dinsdag 27 oktober 2015
The Kingdom of Great Joseon having been confronted whit the destruction of an British-owned armed merchant marine schooner in Korea and the French campaign against Korea, decides that they need help in learning to protect itself against future foreign interventions, and chooses the Kingdom of the Netherlands who has experience in maintaining presence in country’s who follow a strict policy of isolationism, sends a delegation to Batavia, Netherlands East Indies offering them a settlement for the Netherlands to base its self on, in return for learning enough to defend itself against foreign interventions, the Netherlands government accept the offer and together whit Kingdom of Great Joseon officials, begin to scout for a good location for a Netherlands settlement on the Korean peninsula.
The Yeong Island on the south edge of the Korean city of Busan is chosen to become a Netherlands settlement on the Korean peninsula, and transferred to the Netherlands, becoming a Netherlands settlement whit the signing of the Netherlands-Great Joseon Treaty of Friendship and Commerce who most important points of the Treaty are: the exchange of diplomatic agents, the opening of the ports of ports of Busan, Ulsan, Incheon and Wuson to Netherlands trade ships , ability of Netherlands citizens to live and trade at will in those ports, a system of extraterritoriality that provides for the subjugation of Netherlands citizens in the Kingdom of Great Joseon to the laws of their own consular courts instead of the Kingdom of Great Joseon law system, ability for the Kingdom of Great Joseon to purchase Netherlands shipping and weapons and the transferring of Yeong Island to become a settlement for the Netherlands.
The ports of Busan, Ulsan, Incheon and Wuson are open to Netherlands traders as a consequence of the Netherlands-Great Joseon Treaty of Friendship and Commerce.
In responds to the opening of the Kingdom of Great Joseon to the Netherlands and the establishment of the Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement the Netherlands government orders two ironclad turret ships based on the ironclad turret ship HNLMS Prins Hendrik der Nederlanden to be built for use in Joseon waters.
Four years after the establishment of the Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement, the United States of America send a diplomatic delegation towards the Kingdom of Great Joseon, after seeing that the Kingdom of the Netherlands having being allowed to establish a settlement on the Korean peninsula and to find out what happened to the British-owned armed merchant marine schooner which was destroyed in Korean waters, however when Korean shore batteries attack two American warships, of the coast of Ganghwa Island, the commanding American admiral demands to have an apology within ten days, ore he will launch a punitive assault on the forts. Not wanted to speak whit the Americans directly, but also fearing what would happen if the ten days are over, the Kingdom of Great Joseon government request that the Administrator of the Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement to mediate between them and the Americans, the Royal Netherlands Navy station out of the Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement sends a Royal Netherlands Navy warship to the island of Ganghwa ,where five American warships where already preparing to begin their punitive assault on the Korean forts, the Americans seeing a Netherlands corvette approaching decided to call of their attack, in order to hear what the Netherlands had to say.
Prins der Nederlanden-class ironclad turret ship HNLMS Prince der Nederlanden and her sister ship HNLMS Prins van Oranje-Nassau are completed and transferred to the Kingdom of Great Joseon where they will be used to patrol the water of the Kingdom of Great Joseon.
Whit the Netherlands government mediating, the United States-Great Joseon Treaty of 1872 is signed between the United States and the Kingdom of Great Joseon at the Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement, in which the United states are allowed to establish a Consulate-General at the Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement, so that future incidents will be avoided.
The United States diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Great Joseon begin when the first Consul assumes his duty’s at the United States Consulate-General, Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement.
King Kojong together whit his wife Queen Min begins their rule of the Kingdom of Great Joseon.
The Imperial Japanese Navy sail-and-steam gunboat Unyo is dispatched to survey Kingdom of Great Joseon coastal waters, after reaching Ganghwa Island, which already had seen its share of foreign interventions, the Japanese warship Unyo is intercepted by the Prins der Nederlanden-class ironclad turret ship HNLMS Prins van Oranje-Nassau which is patrolling of the coast of Ganghwa Island as requested by the Kingdom of Great Joseon, and is escorted out of the Kingdom of Great Joseon territorial waters ,thereby preventing a battle between the sail-and-steam gunboat Unyo and the Kingdom of Great Joseon Forts on the island of Ganghwa Island from happening.
The Busan Naval Training Center is established near the Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement, where a maximum interaction with Netherlands naval technology will be possible, more than 37 Koreans are chosen to learn various modern naval skills and marine technology and organization with Royal Netherlands Navy officers being in charge of the education, all Korean cadets who graduate from the Busan Naval Training Center, will serve whit the Royal Netherlands Navy operating out of Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement.
The Treaty of Saint Petersburg is signed, between the Empire of Japan and the Empire of Russia, whose terms stipulated that the Empire of Japan give claims to Sakhalin Island in exchange for undisputed sovereignty of all the Kuril Islands up to the Kamchatka peninsula.
15 students of the Busan Naval Training Center are sent to the Royal Netherlands Naval College (Dutch: Koninklijk Instituut voor de Marine) in the Netherlands where they will receive a four year officers training.
The Netherlands Military Mission to Joseon (Dutch: Nederlandse militaire missie naar Joseon), is formed by King William III of the Netherlands, in order to help reorganize the Royal Joseon Army and to train its soldiers in modern warfare.
The Imperial Japanese Navy sends warships Nisshin and Moshun to the port city of Busan, on a visit to the Kingdom of Great Joseon.
Kingdom of Great Joseon system of provinces is re-organized, while the number of provinces remains the same, their method of administration will be based loosely on the Netherlands province system.
King Gojong of the Kingdom of Great Joseon allows for the first time scholars to move to the Netherlands to be toughed in western knowledge.
The Japan-Great Joseon Trade Treaty is signed, opening the port cities of Busan, Incheon and Wonsan to Japanese traders.
A Chinese Tributary mission orders King Gojong, considered by the Chinese, becoming more and more pro-Netherlands each year to stop the reforms, he has begun to make sins taking the throne, however attempts by the pro-Chinese Great Joseon government to convince ore undermine the king, in halting the reforms, fail, as the king has the support of the small, but growing pro-Netherlands faction in the Great Joseon government.
The Nederlandsch-Great Joseon Handelsbank (English: Netherlands-Great Joseon Trade Bank) is established to finance and handle trade with the Kingdom of Great Joseon, whit its It head office, being located in the Netherlands city of Amsterdam, while a branch office is located in the port city of Busan in the Kingdom of Great Joseon.
The Empire of Japan invades the kingdom of Liuqiu (Ryukyu) Islands, formerly a vassal of China.
The Netherlands Governor-General to Great Joseon, in charge of all Netherlands holdings in the Kingdom of Great Joseon, takes over the function previous held by the Administrator of the Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement.
King William III of the Netherlands gives to the Kingdom of Great Joseon, a sail and screw-driven steam corvette which the Koreans name Baekdusan, armed whit 12 guns, Baekdusan will be the first modern western build warship and also the only ship in service in the Royal Joseon Navy at this time, its main function will be to serve as a training ship to the Busan Naval Training Center.
Whit the help of the Netherlands Military Mission to Joseon, the Royal Joseon Army 1st Division in Hanseong (Seoul) is raised.
The Kingdom of Great Joseon sends a technical mission to the Empire of Japan, in order to find out how the Japanese where able to transform their nation from a feudal and isolated state into a modern nation, in such a short time.
The Korean peninsula experience, a severe drought which leads to food shortages, causing much hardship and discord among the population, the Great Joseon government being unable to feed them all, is forced to begin rationing the food, resulting in a food riot breaking out in Hanseong when the population, sacks the rice granaries and the next day attacks the royal palace and the army barracks used by the Royal Joseon Army 1st Division.The population then turned on the Japanese legation. The Japanese legation staff managed to escape to Chemulpo and then Nagasaki via the British survey ship Flying Fish, in responds to these events the Netherlands Governor-General to Great Joseon ordered the Prins der Nederlanden-class ironclad turret ships HNLMS Prince of Orange-Nassau and HNLMS Prins van Oranje-Nassau who escorting three cargo ships transporting a battalion of troops deployed at the Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement to Hanseong to safeguard foreign interests, while the Chinese also deployed 2,500 troops to Hanseong, together they whit the Royal Joseon Army mange to restore order in the capitol.
The United States-Great Joseon Treaty of 1882 is signed between the United States and the Kingdom of Great Joseon, which concerns the purchase of land for an American legation in Hanseong. The treaty also stipulates that United States vessels in distress or needing fuel can enter any Great Joseon port or harbor and that American citizens in the Kingdom of Great Joseon will receive the protection of local authorities.
The Japanese fearing that the Netherlands is getting to much influence in the Kingdom of Great Joseon begins funding the pro-Japanese faction in the Great Joseon government which wants to take over the pro-Chinese Great Joseon government from them and to move the Kingdom towards the Empire of Japan for guidance and assistance, instead of the Netherlands who is fulfilling this function more and more each year.
The Kingdom of Great Joseon hires and places Netherlands Army Captain Schermbeck in charge of modernizing its coastal defenses.
Great Britain signs the Great Britain-Great Joseon Treaty of 1883, concerning the establishment of a British legation in Hanseong,
The Ministry of Presswork and Publication (박문국,博文局) is opened for the modernization of the printing industry.
The first edition of the Hanseong sunbo (한성순보,漢城旬報) is published by the by the Office of Culture and Information (Bangmunguk, 박문국, 博文局). This is the first newspaper to be published in the Kingdom of Great Joseon.
The Joseon-Japanese Underground Cable Construction Treaty is signed by Joseon and Japan. This will lead to a telegraphic connection between Busan and Nagasaki.
The Empire of Germany signs the Germany-Korea Treaty of 1883, concerning the establishment of a Germany legation in Hanseong.
The Ministry of Presswork and Publication (박문국,博文局) is opened for the modernization of the printing industry.
The pro-Japanese faction, overthrows the pro-Chinese Great Joseon government in a bloody coup d’état, however, the pro-Chinese faction, with assistance from the small Chinese garrison in Hanseong succeeds in regaining control with an equally bloody counter-coup, this second coup results not only with the deaths of a several high ranking pro-Japanese and pro-Chinese faction members but caused both the pro-Japanese and pro-Chinese faction to loss power and influence in the government of the Kingdom of Great Joseon allowing the pro-Netherlands faction who didn't get involved in the coup to finally take full control of the Great Joseon government.
The Busan Artillery Arsenal is establishes at Busan, for gun and munitions manufacture and which is set up with machinery shipped over from the Netherlands.
The sail and screw-driven steam corvette and flagship of the Royal Joseon Navy Baekdusan sails to the United States, with only the assistance of a single Royal Netherlands Naval officer onboard, to deliver the Joseon Minister Plenipotentiary and Envoy Extraordinary to the United States.
The Netherlands whit the backing of the newly established pro-Netherlands Great Joseon government, begins construction of barracks in Hanseong (Seoul), which will house a Netherlands funded, equipped and led infantry battalion, which will carry the name Hanseong Battalion, and who prime mission is to protect the Netherlands legation and other foreign legations.
The Empire of Russia signs the Russian-Great Joseon Treaty of 1884, concerning the establishment of a Russian legation in Hanseong.
The Kingdom of Italy signs the Italian-Great Joseon Treaty of 1884, concerning the establishment of a Italian legation in Hanseong.
The Sino-Japanese Convention of Tientsin ore also know as the Tientsin Convention (天津条約 Tenshin Jōyaku) is signed between the Empire of Japan and the Empire of China, in which the two sides agreed to (a) have no military forces in Korea (b) not send military instructors for the training of the Korean military (c) that Korea is advised to hire military instructors from a third nation for the training of the Korean army (d) and notify the other side beforehand should one decide to send troops to Korea, leaving the Netherlands who was not involved in the 1884 coup attempt, as the only nation whit troops in Korea and making Korea its protectorate.
The Royal Joseon Palace Guard, which is part of the Royal Joseon Army and in charge of protecting the Korean royal family, is whit the help of the Netherlands Military Mission to Joseon formed into a battalion sized force.
The British Royal Navy occupies the island of Port Hamilton (Geomun-do) on the south coast of the Korean Peninsula to counterbalance the Russian acquisition of Port Lazaref, despite urging by the Netherlands Government, to leave Port Hamilton, and in return could use Netherlands controlled Yeong Island, in case of war as a base of operations, the British government refused ,stating that Port Hamilton is the ideal counterbalance to the Russian naval base at Vladivostok, but that they would take the Netherlands offer in consideration.
The Netherlands raises its second Infantry battalion, called the Busan Battalion, which main task is to defend the Netherlands interest in the city of Busan.
The Great Joseon government orders the construction of a factory for the repair of naval ships as a part of the Busan Naval Training Center supporting facilities, and a second sail and screw-driven steam corvette for the Royal Joseon Navy to be built in the Netherlands.
The Great Joseon government creates a special reform body (Gunguk Gimucheo, Deliberative Council) to establish and oversee the various reforms regarding administration, law, education, and politics the Korean government wants to make ,and who are mostly all suggested by Netherlands officials advising the Korean government.
The American Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Kingdom of Great Joseon, presents his credentials to King Kojong, whit this the American Consulate-General at the Netherlands-Yeong Island Settlement will be closed, and it functions taken over by the American legation in Hanseong.
The Joseon-Chinese Cable Treaty is signed and enforced, leading to a telegraphic connection between Hanseong and Peking.
The Empire of China after losing its influence over Korea, because of the 1884 Korean coup and the signing of the Sino-Japanese Convention of Tientsin, in the capital of the Kingdom of Great Joseon sings the Treaty of Hanseong, in which the Empire of China recognize the independence and autonomy of the Kingdom of Great Joseon.
The special reform body Gunguk Gimucheo (군국기무처, Deliberative Council) approves an reform bill presented by the Netherlands Governor-General to Korea, which includes the restructuring of central government by greatly reducing the king's responsibilities and placing more power in the State Council of Joseon, the administration of financial affairs are to be centralized, the taxation system redressed, a new monetary system allowing the use of Netherlands ore forging currency, discrimination based on the class system, slavery, underage marriage being banned and widows granted the right to remarry.
The Busan Artillery Arsenal begins production of the Model 1886 Beaumont Bolt-action rifle for the Royal Joseon Army (the Model 1886 Beaumont Bolt-action rifle is based on the Beaumont model 1871/79 Bolt-action rifle in service whit the royal Netherlands Army).
The Netherlands-Russian Treaty is signed in Moscow, in which is written that the Empire of Russia will guarantee the Kingdom of Great Joseon independence and to recognize the Kingdom of Great Joseon to be within the Netherlands sphere of influence, as the Empire of Russia perverse the Netherlands over Japan, in having influence over the Kingdom of Great Joseon.
The French Republic signs the French-Great Joseon Treaty of 1886, concerning the establishment of a French legation in Hanseong.
Whit the Empire of China having recognized the independence and autonomy of the Kingdom of Great Joseon whit the signing of the Treaty of Hanseong, the Netherlands-Great Joseon Treaty of 1887 is signed between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Great Joseon ,in which both sides put down their relation into several articles which are (1) for the purpose of maintaining a permanent and solid friendship between the Netherlands and Korea, the Royal Government of Great Joseon shall place full confidence in the Royal Government of the Netherlands , and adopt the advice of the latter in regard to improvements in administration (2) the Royal Government of the Netherlands shall in spirit of firm friendship ensure the safety of the Royal House of Great Joseon (3) The Royal Government of the Netherlands guarantees the independence and territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Great Joseon (4) In case the welfare of the Royal House of Great Joseon or the territorial integrity of the Kingdom of Great Joseon is endangered by aggression of a third power or internal disturbances, the Royal Government of the Netherlands shall immediately take such necessary measures as circumstances require, and in such case the Royal Government of Royal House of Great Joseon shall give full facilities to promote the action of the Royal Government of the Netherlands (5) the Governments of the two countries shall not in the future without mutual consent conclude with a third power such an arrangement as may be contrary to the principles of the present protocol(6) details in connection with the present protocol shall be arranged as the circumstances may require between the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Korea and the representative of Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Whit the Russian threat diminished the British hand over island of Port Hamilton (Geomun-do) to the Kingdom of Great Joseon who will use it as a base of operations for the Royal Joseon Navy.
At Busan, the Kingdom of Great Joseon completes whit assistance of the Netherlands, here first domestically-built steam warship, the Yulgok Yi I, a 120 ton gunboat who will be commissioned into the Royal Joseon Navy.
The Royal Joseon Military Academy, the first school to train and educate officers and non-commissioned officers belonging to the Royal Joseon Army is establish in Hanseong where Royal Netherlands Army officers will teach the students everything needed to serve as a modern officers and non-commissioned officers.
A second reform bill is approved by the special reform body (Deliberative Council) and includes reforms as changing the names of the State Council of Joseon and its subsidiaries to the western used cabinet and department , administrative districts reorganized to 23 regions and 337 district ,new financial bureaus are to be installed throughout the nation to overlook tax affairs, military , police systems are to be overhauled and modernized, and judicial systems are to be changed with new courthouse and judiciary laws.
The Kingdom of Great Joseon Telegraphic Office is opened for a more efficient management of the telegraphic lines operating in the Kingdom of Great Joseon.
The third and last major reform bill is approved by the special reform body (Deliberative Council) and includes reforms as discarding of the lunar calendar in favor of the modern Gregorian solar calendar, the official designation of era names independent of the Chinese tradition, the creation of a postal service, the introduction of primary schools and a new educational system and the modernization of the Kingdom of Great Joseon.
The Kingdom of Great Joseon with the help from the Netherlands constructs the Southern Cable Line (남로전선,南路電線), connecting Hanseong and Busan.
The Kingdom of Great Joseon establishes full independent diplomatic relations whit the Empire of China, when they become the second Asia country (after Japan) to set up office at the Beijing Legation Quarter.
The Empire of Japan reestablishes relations whit the Kingdom of Great Joseon, after it was forced to closes it legation in Hanseong, due its involvement in the 1884 Korean coup.
The Netherlands creates the Netherlands-Korean Amy (Dutch: Nederlands-Korea Landmacht) which consists of the Hanseong Battalion, Busan Battalion, Incheon Battalion and Pyongyang Battalion.
The second sail and screw-driven steam corvette for the Royal Joseon Navy arrives in Busan, named Dokdo, it will join Baekdusan as a training ship, attached to the Busan Naval Training Center.
The Royal Joseon Army is formed along an eight division model and a conscription law is established for the Royal Joseon Army.
The Kingdom of Great Joseon commissioned at Busan, their second gunboat they have built domestically whit the help of the Netherlands, who will serve whit the Royal Joseon Navy and which is called Choe Yong.
Farmers of Hamgyong-do and Hwanghae-do provinces suffered crop failure, which results that prices of Korean rice, superior in quality to Japanese rice to almost double in price.
The Busan Artillery Arsenal begins production of a 7 cm Field Gun, designated as the Type 90 Field Gun by the Imperial Korean Army (the Type 90 Field Gun is a Korean license version of the 75 mm field gun [7-veld] in use with Royal Netherlands Army).
The Kingdom of Great Joseon Merchants Association for Fairness is opened. The Association promoted usage of foreign weight and measurement standards in the domestic market. It has offices in Incheon, Wonsan and Busan.
The Netherlands-Korea Werfdepot (English: Netherlands-Korean Conscription Depot) is establish in Busan with the purpose of recruiting and training those who have joined the Netherlands-Korean Amy.
The Royal Netherlands Navy commissions the first of the three Busan-class protected cruiser, HNLMS Busan who will be used by the Royal Netherlands Navy Korean Squadron.
The Netherlands-Korea Amy is placed in charge of guarding the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Kingdom of Great Joseon diplomatic offices at the Beijing Legation Quarter (the Netherlands-Korea Amy will maintain a force of 1 officer and 24 soldiers at the Beijing Legation Quarter).
The Great Joseon Northern Cable Treaty is signed by the Empire of China and the Kingdom of Great Joseon. By this treaty, the telegraphic service from Seoul to Wonsan is in operation.
Work begins on building a naval base at Mokpo, a city in the South Jeolla Province. This base which when be completed will become the second naval base of the Royal Joseon Navy after the Busan Naval base.
Second Busan-class protected cruiser HNLMS Hanseong is launched in the Netherlands for use whit the Royal Netherlands Navy Korean Squadron.
Building upon the Treaty of Hanseong of 1887, the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Great Joseon, sign the Netherlands-Great Joseon Alliance in Amsterdam, which articles are (1) promise of support if either signatory becomes involved in war with more than one power (2) signatories promise not to enter into separate agreements with other Powers to the prejudice of this alliance (3) signatories promise to communicate frankly and fully with each other when any of the interests affected by this treaty are in jeopardy.
The Austro-Hungarian Empire signs the Austria-Great Joseon Treaty of 1882, concerning the establishment of an Austria legation in Hanseong.
The Bank of Joseon is establishing by the Great Joseon government whit the help of the Nederlandsch-Great Joseon Handelsbank which was de facto central bank for the Kingdom of Great Joseon from 1878 to 1892.
Prins der Nederlanden-class ironclad turret ship HNLMS Prince of Orange-Nassau and her sister ship HNLMS Prins van Oranje-Nassau are decommissioned after having patrolled the waters of Kingdom of Great Joseon for more than 21 years now that the last of the three Busan-class protected cruiser HNLMS Port Hamilton is launched in the Netherlands for use whit the Royal Netherlands Navy Korean Squadron.
The Bank of Joseon replaces the mun (main currency from 1633 until 1892) whit the yang at a rate of 1 won = 5 yang.
The Kingdom of Great Joseon Telegraphic Office is renamed the Kingdom of Great Joseon Telegraphic and Postal Office.
The Netherlands-Korea Amy, Hanseong Battalion is raised to regiment status.
The cabinet of Great Joseon decides to purchase two Sejong the Great armoured-deck cruisers for the Royal Joseon Navy to be built in the Netherlands.
The Bank of Joseon begins printing the banknotes, whit the denominations of 5 yang, 10 yang, 20 yang, and 50 yang.
Tension between the Empire of Japan and the Empire of China which have been building sins the Japanese Taiwan Expedition of 1874 and in lesser sense the 1884 Korean coup, due disagreement over the Chinese controlled island of Formosa ,who the Japanese see as a potential Japanese colony results that a state of war erupts between them on July 19th 1894.
July 21st 1894, The Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Great Joseon declare them self-neutral and request both the Empire of China and Empire of japan to respect the Kingdom of Great Joseon territorial waters.
July 25th 1894, the first naval battle happens between the Japanese cruisers Yoshino, Naniwa and Akitsushima, versus the Chinese cruiser Tsi-yuan and torpedo gunboat Kwang-Yi who were escorting a transport vessel conveying some 1,200 Chinese troops towards the Chinese island of Formosa, in the naval battle that followed the Chinese torpedo gunboat Kwang-Yi is sunk by the three Japanese warships and the transport vessel is captured by the Japanese, who suffer no loses at all.
July 28th 1894, a Japanese expeditionary force of 5,500 men set sail for the Pescadores Islands.
August 6th 1894, Japanese expeditionary force of 5,500 lands on Pa-chau Island, to the south of the main Pescadores archipelago which is defended by 15 Chinese regular battalions (5,000 men), and after several days the Japanese defeat the last Chinese forces on the island, whit the capture of the island the Japanese are able to prevent further Chinese reinforcements from being sent across the Formosa Strait to the island of Formosa.
September 17th 1894, the Imperial Japanese Navy destroys 8 out of ten warships of the Chinese Beiyang Fleet in the Naval Battle of Formosa , while losing no ships them self.
September 22nd 1894, the second Naval Battle of Formosa between Chinese Beiyang Fleet battleship Zhenyuen, cruisers Ping-yuen, Tsi-yuen, Kwang-ping and six gunboats versus the Imperial Japanese Navy, 25 warships ends whit the sinking of the Chinese battleship Zhenyuen, cruiser Tsi-yuen and 3 gunboats, whit the battle over the Japan’s command of the sea is assured as the remaining Chinese Beiyang Fleet retreats towards Lüshunkou (Port Arthur).
October 10th 1894, royal Netherlands navy protected cruiser HNLMS Sumatra and protected cruiser HNLMS Koningin Emma Der Nederlanden arrive in Busan where they will join the Royal Netherlands Navy Korean Squadron and Royal Joseon Navy in patrolling the Korean waters.
October 29th 1894, fourteen Japanese transport ships carrying 7,000 men, protected by Japanese warships leaving the Japanese occupied Pescadores archipelago, begin the invasion of Formosa.
November 7th 1894, escorted by several Japanese warships, 24 transport ships unload Japanese forces at the Chinese port town of Dalian, and begin their march towards the Chinese city of Lüshunkou (Port Arthur).
November 12th 1894, the Chinese city of Lüshunkou (Port Arthur) is captured by the Japanese Imperial Army, with all remaining Chinese Beiyang Fleet ships in the harbor surrendering to the Japanese.
December 21st 1894, the island of Formosa, is completely taken over by the Japanese Imperial Army, after several months of fighting.
December 28th 1894, the Empire of China requests a cease fire, which is accepted by the Empire of Japan.
January 17th 1985, the Treaty of Shimonoseki is signed between the Empire of China and Empire of Japan ,which terms are (1) China cedes to Japan in perpetuity and full sovereignty of the Penghu group, Formosa and the eastern portion of the bay of Liaodong Peninsula together with all fortifications, arsenals and public property, (2) China agrees to pay to Japan as a war indemnity the sum of 200 million Kuping taels,(3) China opens Shashih, Chungking, Soochow and Hangchow to Japan (4), China is to grant Japan most-favored-nation treatment.
The first Yi Sun-sin class corvette, Yi Sun-sin, enters in service whit the Royal Joseon Navy and will be deployed out of Royal Joseon Navy Base of Busan, where it joins the sail and screw-driven steam corvettes Baekdusan, Dokdo and the gunboats Yulgok Yi I and Choe Yong already in service whit the Royal Joseon Navy.
The Netherlands-Korea Amy, Busan Battalion is raised to regiment status.
The Judicial Officials Training Institute (Popkwan Yangsungso) is established by the Ministry of Justice in order to educate judicial officials.
Under threat of war by Russia, France and Germany, western powers all active in China, Japan, recedes control of Liaodong peninsula, concerned that Lüshunkou (Port Arthur), will fall under Japanese control, in return Japan will settle for an increased war indemnity from China, this intervention by three major western powers, comes as a blessing to the Kingdom of Great Joseon and the Netherlands, as they feared that the control of Lüshunkou would enable the Japanese to have a base of operation behind the Korea peninsula.
Second Royal Joseon Navy Yi Sun-sin class corvette, named Won Gyun, is handed over to the Royal Joseon Navy.
The Kingdom of Great Joseon government divides the Kingdom of Great Joseon into thirteen provinces which are North and South Chungcheong, Gangwon, Gyeonggi, North and South Gyeongsang, North and South Hamgyŏng, Hwanghae, North and South Jeolla, and North and South P'yŏngan.
The Netherlands-Korea Amy last two battalions, the Incheon Battalion and Pyongyang Battalion are raised to regiment status.
The Kingdom of Great Joseon first independent, bilingual newspaper, the Dongnip Sinmun (The Independent) is introduced.
Whit the help of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, several American business firms are given contracts to build electric and water works, trolley and railway systems in the Kingdom of Great Joseon.
Russian naval vessels enter Lüshunkou harbor, which they began to use as a forward base of operations for patrols off of northern China, Korea and in the Sea of Japan, and rename Lüshunkou, Port Arthur.
At Gyeongungung Palace, King Gojong in the presence of his wife Queen Myeongseong, crown prince Sunjong and the Netherlands Governor-General to Korea attending, proclaims the founding of the Empire of Korea, officially redesigning the national title as such, and changing the Royal Joseon Army and Royal Joseon Navy to Imperial Korean Navy and Imperial Korean Army, to reflect the new country title and status.
A cadastral survey project is launched by the Korean government, aiming at modernizing the landownership system, in order to apply Western surveying methods, surveyors from the Netherlands are being employed, who also have the task to teach Koreans to survey the land them self.
The Imperial Korean Navy commissions the first of two Sejong the Great armored-deck cruiser, when the IKS Sejong the Great, which is based on the armored-deck cruiser HNLMS Koningin Wilhelmina der Nederlanden ( a single 280 mm cannon , a single 210 mm canon, two single 170 mm cannons, four single 76 mm cannons and four 360 mm torpedotubes ) in service whit the Royal Netherlands Navy, arrives at the Imperial Korean Naval Base of Busan, where it becomes the flagship of the Imperial Korean Navy.
In the capitol of the Empire of Korea the Hanseong Electric Company or also known as the Hanseong-American Electric Corporation a joint-venture company between several Americans businessman and Emperor Gojong is founded.
Russia formally leased Lüshunkou (Port Arthur) for 25 years from China.
The Busan Naval Training Center becomes the Korean Imperial Navy Academy, or the ongjaeyonghakdang (통제영학당,統制營學堂).
Second Sejong the Great armored-deck cruiser is commissioned whit the Imperial Korean Navy, when the IKS Munmu the Great arrives at the Imperial Korean Naval Base of Busan.
The Dongnip Sinmun (The Independent) published a six article proposal for the establishment of a constitutional government in the Empire of Korea.
The Bank of Joseon is renamed the Bank of korea.
The Nederlandsch-Joseon Handelsbank becomes the Nederlandsch-Koreaans Handelsbank (English: Netherlands-Korean Trade Bank ).
The United Kingdom obtains a lease for the Chinese city of Wei Hai Wei which is to exist for as long as the Russians lease of Lüshunkou (Port Arthur).
The Jong-hyun Catholic Church (종현본당,鐘峴本堂) construction is finished. It is the first Gothic architecture to be built in the Empire of Korea.
The Hwangseong Sinmun ("Capital Gazette" or "Imperial Capital Gazette") released its first print.
The Kingdom of Great Joseon Telegraphic and Postal Office is renamed as the Korean Imperial Telegraphic and Postal Office (전우총국,電郵總局).
The Imperial Korean Army purchases 48 Gardner machine guns.
The Empire of Korea attends the Hague Convention of 1899.
Hanseong-Busan railroad opens.
Several Korean entrepreneurs and high-ranking officials established the Daehan Chunil Bank. The bank operated as both a local bank and central bank.
In the capitol of the Empire of Korea the Gwangjaewon (광제원,廣濟院), the first modern national hospital is opened.
Hanseong-Incheon railroad opens with completion of the Han River Bridge.
The Imperial Korean Navy develops a requirement for a shallow-draft coastal patrol vessel for patrols off the coast of Korea in addition to the existing Yi Sun-sin class corvettes and the Gunboats IKS Yulgok Yi and IKS Choe Yong. For her design, the Koreans turn to the Royal Netherlands Navy Thor-class river gunboats which will be modified to Korean specifications.
The Korean Empire opens its own exhibition pavilion in the Exposition Universelle of Paris.
The Korean Empire becomes a member of the Universal Postal Union.
Former Royal Netherlands Navy Atjeh-class unprotected cruiser HNLMS De Ruyter after being decommissioned in 1900 is sold to the Empire of Korea where it is renamed as Eulji Mundeok and with it becomes the third cruiser to enter into service with the Imperial Korean Navy.
The Kingdom of Belgium signs the Belgium-Korea Treaty of 1901, concerning the establishment of a legation in Hanseong.
The Empire of Korea population reaches the 12 million.
Mokpo Naval base is established at Mokpo, South Jeolla Province, becoming the second naval base for the Imperial Korean Navy. Along with the establishment of the navy base, a ship repair facility is also constructed. Construction of the base will be supervised by Netherlands naval engineers.
Inauguration of the Jigye Ahmun, a system to issue legal documents of property ownership.
The Boxer Rebellion happens in the Empire of China. The Kingdom of Netherlands and the Empire of Korea who both have diplomatic offices at the Beijing Legation Quarter send in the Netherlands-Korea Amy, Hanseong Regiment which after joining the relieve force made up of Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom and United States military forces managed to suppress the anti-foreign Boxers and relieve the siege of the diplomatic legations in Peking.
Embarkment of construction upon the Hanseong-Gaesung line.
Imperial Korean Navy, Sejong the Great armored-deck cruiser, IKS Sejong the Great and Eulji Mundeok-class unprotected cruiser IKS Eulji Mundeok (former Atjeh-class unprotected cruiser HNLMS De Ruyter) visit the United Kingdom, as part of the official Korean delegation to the coronation ceremonies of King Edward VII.
The Imperial Korean Army purchases large numbers of Maxim heavy machine guns.
The Netherlands-Korea Amy, Pyongyang Battalion is raised to regiment status.
Japan and Great Britain sign the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. In it, Britain acknowledges Japan's ownership of Formosa in return for Japan's acknowledgement of Britain's interests in China. In addition, it guarantees that Britain will remain neutral unless Japan is attacked by more than one country.
The Kingdom of Denmark signs the Denmark-Korea Treaty of 1902, concerning the establishment of a legation in Hanseong.
First immigration of 100 Koreans to Hawaii.
The "Anthem of the Greater Korean Empire" commissioned by Emperor Gojong in 1901 and presented to the Korean court in 1902, by German composer Franz Eckert, who happens to be the director of the Imperial Korean Army military band is published in the Empire of Germany in six different languages (Korean, Dutch, German, English, Chinese and French) and performed for the first time on September 9th 1902, during Emperor Gojong's birthday ceremony.
The Korean Empire becomes a member of the International Committee of the Red Cross.
Establishment of the Hanseung Bank (한성은행,漢城銀行).
A special permission for the management of waterworks facilities for Hanseong, the capitol of the Korean Empire is given to a newly created Hanseong Waterworks by order of Emperor Gojong. Hanseong Waterworks which is set up with the support and finance of the Netherlands-Korean Trade Bank will construct the first water purification plant at the Ttuk Island fresh water reservoir which when completed somewhere in 1908 be able to supply fresh water to some 200,000 people living in Hanseong.
The Korean government placed an order for two protected cruisers with the Koninklijke Fabriek van Stoom- en andere Werktuigen a shipbuilder in the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
Japan demands that Russia removes its troops from Manchuria. Russia pledges to do so but never does.
The first meteorological observatory is constructed in Mokpo and various other places.
The Korean Daily News publishes its first issue.
The number of Koreans living in Hawaii reaches 7,000.
As Russia refuses demands by Japan to withdraw its troops form Manchuria. Japan responds by severing diplomatic relations with Russia.
First of the two Incheon-class protected cruisers named IKS Incheon is launched at the wharf of Koninklijke Fabriek van Stoom- en andere Werktuigen, Netherlands. The Incheon-class being based on the single protected cruiser HNLMS Sumatra are armed with a single 210 mm cannon, a single 150 mm cannon and two single 120 mm cannons.
Korean Emperor Kojong informs Russian Minister Pavlov that the Empire of Korea will remain neutral in any conflict between Russia and Japan.
The Royal Netherlands Navy Atjeh-class unprotected cruiser HNLMS Tromp decommissioned in 1904 becomes the second of here class to enter into service with the Imperial Korean Navy where it is given the name of Dae Jo-yeong.
The Secretary of the Imperial Treasury, Yi Yong-ik establishes the Bosung College.
The Hanseung Chamber of Commerce (한성상무회의소,漢城商務會議所), the first of its kind in the Empire of Korea is established.
Imperial Korean Navy sail and screw-driven steam corvette Baekdusan, the first naval ship to enter service first with the Royal Joseon Navy in 1881 and later its successor the Imperial Korean Navy is re-designated a third-class gunboat, and will be used for coastal survey and patrol duties.
The Imperial Korean Navy commissions the first of two Incheon-class protected cruisers named IKS Incheon.
Second Incheon-class protected cruisers named IKS Pyongyang is commissioned with the Imperial Korean Navy.